The practice of identifying and monitoring an area's physical features by measuring its reflected and emitted radiation from a distance is known as remote sensing (typically from satellite or aircraft). The phrase "remote sensing" now refers to the detection and classification of objects on Earth using satellite or aircraft-based sensor technologies. Based on propagating signals, it includes the surface, atmosphere, and seas (e.g., electromagnetic radiation). It can be divided into "active" remote sensing (when a signal is emitted by a satellite or aircraft to the object and its reflection is detected by the sensor) and "passive" remote sensing (when a signal is emitted by a satellite or aircraft to the object and its reflection is detected by the sensor) (when the reflection of sunlight is detected by the sensor). A geographic information system (GIS) is a system for creating, managing, analyzing, and mapping various types of data. GIS ties data to a map by combining location data (where things are) with several forms of descriptive data (what things are like there). This lays the groundwork for mapping and analysis, which is employed in science and nearly every sector. Users can utilize GIS to better comprehend trends, relationships, and the context of their location. Improved communication and efficiency, as well as better management and decision-making, are all advantages. GIS technology combines typical database functions with maps, such as querying and statistical analysis. GIS organizes location-based data and provides tools for displaying and analyzing statistics such as population demographics, economic development potential, and vegetation types.