Geoinformatics is an area of science and engineering that creates and uses information science infrastructure to solve problems in geography, cartography, geosciences, and related fields. "The science and technology dealing with the structure and character of spatial information, its capture, classification and qualification, storage, processing, portrayal, and dissemination, including the infrastructure necessary to secure optimal use of this information," according to one definition, or "the art, science, or technology dealing with the acquisition, storage, processing, production, presentation, and dissemination of geoinformation," according to another. Geomatics is a concept that incorporates both geoinformatics and surveying, but geomatics focuses more on surveying. The tools that support the capture, analysis, and visualization of spatial data are at the heart of geoinformatics. Geodesy's theory and practical consequences are heavily used in both geomatics and geoinformatics. Geomechanics is the study of how underlying rocks deform or fail in reaction to stress, pressure, and temperature changes, and it's becoming more significant in oil and gas development. The study of how underlying rocks deform or fail in response to changes in stress, pressure, and temperature is known as geomechanics. Geomechanics is the study of the mechanical behavior of geological materials, both theoretically and practically. It is utilized to minimise risks and maximise profits associated with reservoir and surrounding formation mechanical failure as a result of oil and gas exploration and production activities such as drilling oil and gas wells, hydraulic fracturing, water or gas flooding, and depletion. The goal is to predict when such failures may occur, hence lowering the risk.