Geology is the study of the Earth, its materials, the structure of those materials, and the processes that affect them. It encompasses the study of species that have lived on our planet in the past. The study of how Earth's materials, structures, processes, and species have changed over time is an essential element of geology. Geologists study our planet's past to learn more about it. The better the grasp of Earth's history; the better scientists will be able to predict how previous events and processes will affect the future. Modern geology is recognized as one of the major aspects of integrated Earth system science and planetary science since it integrates with the other Earth sciences, including hydrology and the atmospheric sciences. It also includes methods for determining the relative and absolute ages of rocks discovered in a certain place, as well as describing the rock's history. Geologists may document the geological history of the Earth as a whole and demonstrate the age of the Earth by combining these technologies. Plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life, and the Earth's previous temperatures are all supported by geology. Geodesy is the science of precisely measuring and comprehending the geometry (geometric shape and size), orientation in space, and gravity of the Earth. Studies of how these qualities change over time, as well as analogous observations for other planets, are all part of the topic (known as planetary geodesy). Designing global and national control networks, applying space geodesy and terrestrial geodetic techniques, and relying on datums and coordinate systems can be used to study geodynamical phenomena such as crustal motion, tides, and polar motion.