Geochemistry is the study of chemical origins, transport, and fate at diverse geographical and temporal scales in the geosphere. Geochemistry is the study of the chemistry of natural earth materials as well as the chemical processes that occur both now and in the past within and upon the Earth. Any natural sample, such as air, volcanic gas, water, dust, soil, sediment, rock, or biological hard tissues (particularly ancient biological tissues), as well as anthropogenic materials, such as industrial effluent and sewage sludge, can be geochemically analyzed. As a result, geochemical investigations can encompass a wide range of materials and analytes of interest, and they can be carried out for industrial, environmental, or scholarly purposes. All of the naturally occurring elements in the periodic table are useful in one way or another for geochemical research. Geochronology is the science of dating geologic events and earth materials (rocks, minerals, and fossils). It is important in all facets of the planetary and Earth sciences' history. Geochronology is a crucial technique for reconstructing orogenic belt geodynamic development, dating plutonic or volcanic rock emplacement, metamorphic processes, sediment deposition and estimating the age of the source rocks from which sedimentary detritus is produced. Geochronology is the science of establishing the age of rocks, fossils, and sediments by examining their signatures. Radioactive isotopes can be used for absolute geochronology, whereas paleomagnetism and stable isotope ratios can be used for relative geochronology. The precision of the retrieved age can be increased by integrating different geochronological indications. In terms of application, geochronology differs from biostratigraphy, which is the study of documenting, categorizing, and comparing fossil floral and faunal assemblages to assign sedimentary rocks to a known geological period.